Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Bulgarian. While the norm requires the realizations vidyal vs. videli (he has seen; they have seen), some natives of Western Bulgaria will preserve their local dialect pronunciation with "e" for all instances of "yat" (e.g. In Defense of the Native Tongue: The Standardization of the Macedonian Language and the Bulgarian-Macedonian Linguistic Controversies. This split, which occurred at some point during the Middle Ages, led to the development of Bulgaria's: The literary language norm, which is generally based on the Eastern dialects, also has the Eastern alternating reflex of yat. Some common expressions use these words, and some can be used alone as interjections: Bulgarian has several abstract particles which are used to strengthen a statement. In 886 AD, Bulgaria adopted the Glagolitic alphabet devised by the Byzantine missionaries Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius in the 850s. The most productive way to form adverbs is to derive them from the neuter singular form of the corresponding adjective—e.g. Russian loans are distinguished from Old Bulgarian ones on the basis of the presence of specifically Russian phonetic changes, as in оборот (turnover, rev), непонятен (incomprehensible), ядро (nucleus) and others. Present, past, future tenses are expressed in a number of simple, compound, and hybrid forms. Stress can fall on any syllable in the word. In some cases, this name was used not only with regard to the contemporary Middle Bulgarian language of the copyist but also to the period of Old Bulgarian. Verbs are marked for the following categories: The neutral word order in Bulgarian is Subject-Verb-Object. The past perfect subjunctive ([по добре] да бях отишъл (ˈpɔdobrɛ) dɐ bʲax oˈtiʃɐl/, 'I'd had better be gone') refers to possible events in the past, which did not take place, and the present pluperfect subjunctive (да съм бил отишъл /dɐ sɐm bil oˈtiʃɐl/), which may be used about both past and future events arousing feelings of incontinence,[clarification needed] suspicion, etc. in Entangled Histories of the Balkans - Volume One. In the late 1800s, an alphabet consisting of 32 letters designed by Marin Drinov gained acceptance. At the end of the 18th century, it was replaced by the Russian ‘civil’ orthography, the result of the efforts of Peter the Great, czar of Russia, to modernize all aspects of Russian society, including orthography. As a national revival occurred toward the end of the period of Ottoman rule (mostly during the 19th century), a modern Bulgarian literary language gradually emerged that drew heavily on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian (and to some extent on literary Russian, which had preserved many lexical items from Church Slavonic) and later reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkan loans. It is also spoken in Canada, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Ukraine, and the U.S. Ethnologue estimates that the total number of speakers of Bulgarian worldwide is 6.8 million. / An interesting phenomenon is that these can be strung along one after another in quite long constructions, e.g. Two of them are simple – past aorist inferential and past imperfect inferential – and are formed by the past participles of perfective and imperfective verbs, respectively. These particles can be combined with the vocative particles for greater effect, e.g. The participles are inflected by gender, number, and definiteness, and are coordinated with the subject when forming compound tenses (see tenses above). The gender of the noun can largely be inferred from its ending: nouns ending in a consonant ("zero ending") are generally masculine (for example, град /ɡrat/ 'city', син /sin/ 'son', мъж /mɤʃ/ 'man'; those ending in –а/–я (-a/-ya) (жена /ʒɛˈna/ 'woman', дъщеря /dɐʃtɛrˈja/ 'daughter', улица /ˈulitsɐ/ 'street') are normally feminine; and nouns ending in –е, –о are almost always neuter (дете /dɛˈtɛ/[stress?] Also, the plural ending –ове /ovɛ/ occurs only in masculine nouns. However, other orders are possible. According to the Bulgarian Academy of Science’s Institute for Bulgarian Language, there are around 200,000 words in the language. The same pattern is used to form adverbs from the (adjective-like) ordinal numerals, e.g. (come on! Two numbers are distinguished in Bulgarian–singular and plural. The Bulgarian “B” is pronounced like the Latin “V,” and the “H” is actually pronounced as “N.” If you see a P, pronounce it like an “R.” Perplexed? One of the main historically established communities are the Bessarabian Bulgarians, whose settlement in the Bessarabia region of nowadays Moldavia and Ukraine dates mostly to the early 19th century. In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was gradually replaced by the name языкъ блъгарьскъ, the "Bulgarian language". The language is mainly split into two broad dialect areas, based on the different reflexes of the Common Slavic yat vowel (Ѣ). There are three grammatical genders in Bulgarian: masculine, feminine and neuter. The remaining adverbs are formed in ways that are no longer productive in the language. actions which are performed by the agent onto him- or herself) which behave in a similar way as they do in many other Indo-European languages, such as French and Spanish. ", inferred translation – "what kind of no-good person is she? In Bulgarian, there is also grammatical aspect. The conditional mood consists of five compound tenses, most of which are not grammatically distinguishable. Several Cyrillic alphabets with 28 to 44 letters were used in the beginning and the middle of the 19th century during the efforts on the codification of Modern Bulgarian until an alphabet with 32 letters, proposed by Marin Drinov, gained prominence in the 1870s. It uses the Cyrillic alphabet, just like Russian. The history of the Bulgarian language spans several periods: Prehistoric Bulgarian A variety of plural suffixes is used, and the choice between them is partly determined by their ending in singular and partly influenced by gender; in addition, irregular declension and alternative plural forms are common. Стр. While Bulgarian and Russian are both Slavic, use the same Cyrillic alphabet and may sound similar to each other, they are otherwise two entirely different languages. Bulgarian has six vowel phonemes, but at least eight distinct phones can be distinguished when reduced allophones are taken into consideration.

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