Cirsium arvense subsp. (2015) Asymptomatic systemic disease of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) caused by Puccinia punctiformis and changes in shoot density following inoculation. The rust species Puccinia obtegens has shown some promise for controlling Canada thistle, but it must be used in conjunction with other control measures to be effective. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide that can be used when the plant has grown a few inches tall, where the herbicide can be absorbed by the leaf surfaces. [27][28][29], The flowers are visited by a wide variety of insects such as bees, moths, wasps and beetles[30] (the generalised pollination syndrome). [3], Crop tolerance and weed control ratings were conducted in the spring of 2012, and the Prepass herbicide by DOW AgroSciences was found to be most effective at controlling the species as a weed problem in alfalfa fields. P-anisaldehyde is found in less than 1%, yet it attracts pollinators such as honey bees. Biological Control 67:350-360. Subscribe now and be up to date with our latest news and updates. Iljin. Pinkish-purple (occasionally white), the flower heads are typically 1 to 2 cm across,with no differentiation between disc and ray florets. in diameter, and 1-2 cm (0.4-0.75 in.) discolor Neilr., 1850. malhoi Giraudias, 1890, Cirsium arvense var. [6] It is also commonly known as Canada thistle and field thistle. Flora of North America, Canada or creeping or field thistle, chardon du Canada ou des champs, cirse des champs, Nebraska Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Program, "Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows", Weeds and weed management on arable land: an ecological approach, "Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance", "The Biology of Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)", 10.1603/0022-0493(2008)101[720:FSOCTA]2.0.CO;2, "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Unexpected Ecological Effects of Distributing the Exotic Weevil, Larinus planus (F.), for the Biological Control of Canada Thistle", "2011/12 Fall Alfalfa Herbicide Trials for Control of Canada Thistle". All rights reserved. Flowers are purple to white, up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) long and 0.5 inch (1.3 cm) in diameter. Traditional uses and benefits of Creeping Thistle,,,,,,,,,,,,,, [15], GIven its adaptive nature, Cirsium arvense is one of the worst invasive weeds worldwide. It is also commonly known as Canada thistle and field thistle. Average seed production per plant has been estimated at 1530. Medicinal Uses of Bull Thistle. Flowering occurs in late June to August. The compounds found in the fragrance may not be in the highest abundance but they are highly attractive. It has been chewed as a remedy for toothache. [9], A number of other names are used in other areas or have been used in the past, including: Canadian thistle, lettuce from hell thistle, California thistle,[10] corn thistle, cursed thistle, field thistle, green thistle, hard thistle, perennial thistle, prickly thistle, small-flowered thistle, way thistle and stinger-needles. Tiley, G.E.D. The stalks, however, are also edible and more easily despined. The plant grows on all waterlogged, poorly aerated, and peat soils, including clay, clay loam, silt loam, sandy loam, sandy clay, sand dunes, gravel, limestone, and chalk. Plants require little care, but deadheading limits their tendency to self-sow. Fisch. The taproot is considered the most nutritious part. [34], Orellia ruficauda feeds on Canada thistle and has been reported to be the most effective biological control agent for that plant. [citation needed] The leaves are also edible, though the spines make their preparation for food too tedious to be worthwhile. Leaves are 1.2 to 7 inches (3-18 cm) long and 0.2 to 2.4 inches (0.5-6 cm) wide, Plants are polygamo-dioecious, thus there are male and female plants, Achenes are tiny, 2-3 mm (0.1 in.) [14] Each head contains an average of 100 florets. [7][8], The plant is beneficial for pollinators that rely on nectar. [18] the fragrance that C. arvense emits attracts both pollinators and florivores containing compounds that attract each respectively. This mechanism has only been observed in pistillate plants for dioecious C. arvense. Hermaphrodites and subhermaphrodites in a reputedly dioecious plant. Cirsium arvense var. PLANTOPEDIA: Browse flowering plants by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, or Origin. [38] However, use of this weevil has had a damaging effect on other thistle species as well, include some that are threatened. Leaves are alternate on the stem with their base sessile and clasping or shortly decurrent. They are glabrous above, but their undersides have short, white hairs. They should be sown at a depth of 0.12 inches (3 mm). Canada and Canadian thistle are in wide use in the United States, despite being a misleading designation (it is not of Canadian origin). It also grows best on limestone soils with abundant moisture, Deep and wide-spreading root system with a slender taproot and far-creeping lateral roots. Tiley, G.E.D. These are the crunchy, immature bases, or capitulum, of the composite flower-head. [12] The C3 plants originated during Mesozoic and Paleozoic eras, and tend to thrive in areas where sunlight intensity is moderate, temperatures are moderate, and ground water is plentiful. arvense, Breea arvensis, Breea dioica, Breea ochrolepidia, Breea praealta, Breea setosa, Carduus arvensis, Carduus haemorrhoidalis, Carduus neglectus, Carduus segetum, Carduus serratuloides, Carduus setosus, Cephalonoplos arvense, Cephalonoplos arvensis, Cephalonoplos ochrolepidium, Cephalonoplos segetum, Cephalonoplos setosus, Cirsium albicans, Cirsium albiflorum, Cirsium argenteum, Cirsium argunense, Cirsium x celakovskianum, Cirsium dioicum, Cirsium halophilum, Cirsium horridum, Cirsium incanum, Cirsium laevigatum, Cirsium macrostylon, Cirsium mutatum, Cirsium neglectum, Cirsium ochrolepidium, Cirsium praealtum, Cirsium ruthenicum, Cirsium setosum, Cirsium sordidum, Cirsium stocksii, Cnicus arvensis, Cnicus candicans, Cnicus lanatus, Cnicus macrostylus, Cnicus neglectus, Cnicus ruthenicus, Cnicus setosus, Cynara repens, Serratula arvensis, Serratula incana, Serratula setosa, Family: Asteraceae spinosissimum Neilr., 1859, Cirsium arvense var. Nonnative honeybees are shown to have the highest visitation rate, following other bee species such as halictus and lasioglossum. microstylon (Rchb.) [citation needed] The leaves are also edible, though the spines make their preparation for food too tedious to be worthwhile. Shoots can also arise from the lateral buds on the underground portion of regular shoots, particularly if the shoots are cut off through mowing or when stem segments are buried.[17]. Alternate, the base sessile and clasping or shortly decurrent; leaves generally oblong in outline, margin variable from entire to deeply pinnately segmented, spiny. One to 5 flower heads occur per branch, with plants in very favorable conditions producing up to 100 heads per shoot. Every plant species has a unique floral fragrance composition. [31], The species is widely considered a weed even where it is native, for example being designated an "injurious weed" in the United Kingdom under the Weeds Act 1959. [23][24][25] One to 5 flower heads occur per branch, with plants in very favourable conditions producing up to 100 heads per shoot. Berner, D. K., et al. Looking at certain butterflies species, it can be seen that the fragrance blend is highly attractive to them, being sensitive to their antennae.

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